Adaptive And Innate Immunity
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Adaptive and Innate Immunity
A pathogen is a disease causing agent which includes a vast amount of microorganisms: viruses, bacteria, fungi, protozoa, worms, and parasites. Antigens are agents which stimulate an immune response. Most antigens are pathogens which stimulate a strong immune response.
The purpose of the innate immunity system is to keep away all pathogens. After, the pathogen makes an appearance in the body, the innate system of defense acts very rapidly. The major point in dealing with the innate system of defense is that it is nonspecific. Therefore, it will approach any pathogen it comes into contact with. The innate systems of defense are very helpful yet we overlook them quite often. The skin is probably the best innate line of defense. It excludes most pathogens from entering the body. Cilia in mucous membranes help sweep out airborne pathogens and dust. Tears, nasal secretions, and saliva are also good because they contain bacteria destroying enzymes. The innate system is also known for phagocytic cells (“phago”-eating, “cyte”-cell) which migrate to affected areas and engulfs the pathogens. Phagocytic cells include: Neutrophils, Macrophages, and Dendritic cells that are part of the white blood cell fraction. Pathogens and infected cells produce chemokines, peptides that increase the permeability of blood vessels. This permits a migration of white blood cells toward the wound, causing the redness and inflammation associated with infection.
However, if an invading pathogen gets by the innate system of defense, the body will launch an adaptive, or specific response against one type of antigen. Adaptive immune responses are antigen-specific. Adaptive immune responses include production of antibody and destruction of infected cells. This immune response is divided into two systems: Humoral system and Cellular system. The humoral system makes antibodies to eliminate pathogens and their products....